The vast majority of time involved in developing the Policy Case, either Affirmative
or Negative, revolves around researching for "evidence" (facts, statistics, and expert
opinions) to support your case. While this takes regular effort, there are ways to
make research more efficient.
It starts with a good search term and good search tools.
Use a good search engine (or catalog search) that is set to filter for your desired results.
For example, set the engine to bring up only academic or legal articles to avoid having to
sift through the gossip blogs or trivial mention of your topic.
Phrase your search question to help target the results you seek. Then rephrase your question to receive different results. For example, searching for "illegal aliens" may be too broad. Instead search for "the cost of illegal aliens to America's economy." Try several different configurations of that phrase, for example "how much do illegal aliens cost Amercan business." Then switch the term "undocumented workers" for "illegal aliens." Continue to vary your queries as you receive results. Be sure to check the opposite position of your question as you will be searching for both Affirmative and Negative cases. For example rephrase your search to look for "illegal aliens benefit US business." Continue using the same concepts of rewording and re-targeting as you look for results.
Be sure to backup and save your work!
Bookmark your fruitful searches, then copy and categorize (or "block") your information into a word processing program. Finally print off your results into evidence sheets to be placed in your debate notebook. Only printed evidence is allowed in rounds (which includes your evidence sheets, and books, newspapers and magazines in their entirety).
Always back up your evidence to protect from loss. You should have 2 copies of all evidence, one for yourself, and one for your partner.
Keep track of your time.
Keep track of your search time for credit hours. Also mark the research you have found to track your work for grade purpose and to help decide which partner should get which research should the team split for one reason or another.
Carefully organize and cite your evidence.
Remember all evidence must be carefully cited with appropriate author, credentials (of author), publisher or source, and date it was either published or retrieved off the internet. Good evidence is authoritative only if it is from an author and source that is both reliable and well informed on that topic.
Evidence should also be well organized for easy retrieval during the debate round. Carefully sectioning evidence with notebook divisions speeds locating it during the round. Placing evidence in plastic sheet protectors allows one piece of evidence to be notated and reused round after round (with the use of dry erase or vis-a-vis pens).
There is no shortcut to research as nothing replaces diligent and consistent effort, but using a focused approach, with good search tools, remembering to carefully cite, categorize, organize, and backup your results, can significantly reduce the time a student spends on evidence collection.
All evidence should be accurate, factual, and balanced. Biased evidence presents an issue solely from the perspective of the author's personal opinion or conclusions. It seeks to persuade the reader by using only the evidence that supports its position, ignoring evidence or facts that disagree. Such pieces should be reserved for the OpEd (opinion/editorial) section of the news source.
Opinions are not bad. We form opinions every day which help us interact in our world in a way that is useful to us. We use expert opinions to help guide our decisions.
Bias is not inherently bad. We all must determine what we believe is true, and what is not true, in order to make meaninful decisions. Therefore, everyone has a worldview bias...the lens they use to interpret the world around them in order to make sense of the world and how they live in the world.
Every writer then writes from their own personal understanding which thereby includes their bias to a certain degree.
However, responsible news writers attempt to fairly and accurately portray an issue from both sides, even those they disagree with, so that differing opinions and viewpoints are equally presented. The purpose is to allow the reader to draw their own conclusions about the issues from facts accurately presented.
When opinion is presented as news, "bad" bias is present. When it attempts to report false facts to persuade, it becomes propaganda.
Opinion bias can be disguised by:
The omission of facts (what was included vs. what was not included),
Choice of sources (using only those fitting the writer's bias while ignoring others),
Imbalance of support (unfairly weighting the piece to one side),
Presenting the piece with "spin" (providing only one interpretation of the issue), and
Unfavorably labeling persons, groups, or ideas of one side (while the other is not labeled).
For more information on bias, particularly media bias, please see the Student Daily News article, Media Bias, then review the analysis of Conservative vs. Liberal positions, then review the links at examples of media bias.
Also see All Sides, an organization which attempts to evaluate the bias leanings of different news sources and then links news articles from "all" sides for current issues. MRCTV reviews news with the purpose of determining bias and misinformation as does their segments Reality Check.
Google Safe Search for Kids is Google's family friendly search engine.
Google Scholar. Confines searches to academic peer reviewed material. Essential for lessening the search time for obtaining authoritative documentation. Once upon a time you could change your advance search settings in Google to focus on academic papers and materials within Google's normal search. Now you will need to either go to Google Scholar or upload the Google Scholar extension to your browser or app to your device....look for it in your extension or app store.
Noodle Tools provides search tools for a modest annual fee. This particular tool walks a student through their search quest in a question format. Noodle Tools also provides a Knowledge Base article database and MLA and ALA format help.
12 Fabulous Academic Search Engines
A list of 12 great search engines (not all are free)
More Search Tips
Virtual Salt's Internet Search Tips This article gives a detailed overview of internet research tools and research tips.
Some Notable Research Resource Websites
Black's Law Dictionary, 2nd Ed, free online with additional definitions added by Free Law Dictionary