top of page

Policy Debate Resolution

2021-2022 Fall Term Resolution

The United States federal government shall substantially reform, replace, or create federal policy regarding current national election practices and procedures for electing federal positions (ie US senators, congressmen, president).


Resolution Notes

This resolution shall include arguments regarding assessing election methods used by the states for conducting federal races, gerrymandering practices, campaign finance practices, and/or issues regarding determining voter integrity, ease, and eligibility, this may include in-person only voting, voter i.d, citizen only voting, mail-in voting, etc.

Topic Background 

U.S. Constitution, Election of President

U.S. Constitution Election of Federal Senators and Representatives


History of How Federal Senators Elected

How to Become President, video by

Do You Understand the Electoral College, Tara Ross, Prager University, May 17, 2015,

Popular Vote vs the Electoral College, Tara Ross, Prager University, May 17, 2015,

(notably discusses the dangers of NPV)

How Are Presidential Campaigns Financed? History Channel.

How Campaign Finance Works, CNN Business.

Gerrymandering: How drawing jagged lines can impact an election, TED talk.

Gerrymandering: Crash Course Government and Politics #37.

Articles to Investigate for Case Ideas (Are there problems in the current system?)

"The History of Voter Fraud," Heritage Foundation, conservative think tank, retrieved August 31, 2021.

"Voter Fraud Map: A Sampling of Recent Fraud Cases from across the United States," Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, retrieved August 25, 2021.

"US 2020 Election Fraud," website that " aims to summarize the allegations of fraud, as presented in governmental hearings, courts, and investigative reports, by state, to provide an easy reference and portal for further research," retrieved August 25, 2021.

"Skeptical of Voter Fraud in 2020:Here's Your Evidence" by Gil Sanders, Thomistic Thinker, blogger, November 20, 2020 (historical overview of voter fraud).

"Why Skepticism Over 2020's Election Results Remain Justified," by Gil Sanders (rebuttal to criticism of article above), Thomistic Thinker, blogger, May 10, 2021.

"Elections Expert Seth Keshel Releases National Fraud Numbers," by Jim Hoft, reporter The Gateway Pundit, an award winning conservative news source, August 2, 2021.

"Facts About Election Integrity and the Need for States to Fix their Systems," Heritage Foundation, conservative think tank, February 2021.

"Election Integrity" search on Heritage Foundation


"Voter Suppression? Dems Flat Out Wrong. Census Data Gives Real Story About Voter Suppression," Heritage Foundation, conservative think tank,

"Public Campaign Financing," Brennan Center for Justice, retrieved August 25, 2021.

Money for local elections should come from local government, Townhall, Tarron Bragdon, June 11, 2021

"Is Gerrymandering Unconstitutional,"  by Alanna Fuschillo, Committee for Economic Development, November 29, 2017.

"It's Time to Ban Congressional Gerrymandering," Jamie Magolin, contributor, The Huffington Post, May 26, 2017.

Possible Solutions...and Rebuttals (Your Case Plan)

"House Passes Partisan John Lewis Voting Act," by Landon Windon, reporter, Townhall, August 24,2021

"For the People Act," HR1 Reform bill 2021 (passed by House, likely defeated in Senate)

"House Approves Major Election and Campaign Finance Reform Bill," Alana Wise, National Public Radio (NPR), March 3, 2021.

HR 1 For the People Act, text


Which is the reboot of Election Reform bill 2019

"House Passes Extensive Election and Campaign Finance Overhaul Bill," Miles Park, National Public Radio (NPR), March 8, 2019.

"Facts About HR 1: The For the People Act, Heritage Foundation," conservative think tank, February 2021.


"What's in Democrats' Big Election Reform Bill," Ashley Hackett, staff reporter, MinnPost ("non-profit, non-partisan journalism"), March 30, 2021.

It's Over: Senate Republicans Defeat Corrupt "For the People Act," by Reagan McCarthy, reporter, Townhall, June 22, 2021

"Texas Legislature Passes Election-Reform Bill," by Caroline Downey, National Review, conservative news site, August 31,2021.

"Nine Election Reforms States Can Implement to Prevent Mistakes and Voter Fraud," Hans A. von Spakovsky, Heritage Foundation, an organization to promote conservative ideas, February 2, 2021.

"Campaign Finance Reform," by Thomas E. Mann, the Brookings Institute, a non-profit think tank in Washington D.C., March 26, 1996.

"12 Pros and Cons of Campaign Finance Reforms," by Louise Gaille, Director of Student Conduct and Services, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Vittana Personal Finance Blog, April 27, 2017.

New York's Ranked Choice Voting is a Mistake, Sean-Michael Pigeon, The National Review, June 23, 2021,

Popular Vote vs the Electoral College, Tara Ross, Prager University, May 17, 2015,

(notably discusses the dangers of NPV)

18 Pros and Cons of Enacting Voter I.D. Laws," Natalie Rigoli, attorney at law and editor ConnectUS, June 16, 2019.

"Voter Identification Requirements, Voter ID Laws," National Conference of State Legislators, a compilation of the state voter id laws in the nation.

"A Win for Election Integrity: The Supreme Court Hands Democrats a Big Loss," Reagan McCarthy, Townhall, online news source, July 1, 2021.

"In Texas, Democrats Thwart Will of Majority," Townhall article, conservative news source, by Bryon York, June 2, 2021.

"Why State Election Reform Bills Don't Signal New Jim Crow Era," Walter Olson, commentator, CATO Institute, a Libertarian think tank, April 5, 2021.

"In Lie Filled Speech, Joe Biden Makes False Claims of Jim Crow 2.0," by Katie Pavlovich, editor, Town Hall, online news source, July 13, 2021


"Jim Crow Laws," History editors,

"(Southern) Democrats and Jim Crow Laws: A Century of Racist History the Democratic Party Would Like You to Forget," Libertarian Institute.

General Politics and Worldview
"Private Sector vs. Public Sector," Prager University, Dennis Prager, conservative commentator, video, published July 8, 2016.

Left vs. Right: How Do We Make Society Better? Prager University video.

Conservative vs. Liberal Beliefs, The Student Daily News

Are Some Cultures Better Than Others? Prager University video

Socialism vs. Capitalism, Student News Daily

A Short History of Slavery, Prager University video (response to Critical Race Theory)


General Government Lessons
Types of Government Explained, a youtube presentation on the different types of government.

How power is divided in the US, a TedEd video.

Why America is a Republic, not a Democracy (overview of other government types included, by the Indicrat)


Senator Ben Sasse discourse during Kavanaugh which is an estute review on judicial vs. legislative function in the US.

Separation of Powers Check and Balance  (a Crash Course video, some good info, annoying presentation)

the Bicameral Congress (a Crash Course video, some good info, annoying presentation)

Constitutional Principles:Representative Government (the Bill of Rights Institute)

The Electoral College (and why it is important), Prager University video.

Introduction to the Constitution, video lecture series by Hillsdale College  Also check into their other free, online courses such as Constitution 101 and 201 and US History. (These courses are excellent prep for the American Government and US History I CLEP's).


How a Bill Becomes Law
I'm Just a Bill (yes...the old Schoolhouse Rock version)
SNL and Executive Orders
Vox update on How a Bill Really Becomes Law

LexNexis interactive chart on the real steps of How a Bill Becomes Law

General Economics Lessons

Why You Love Capitalism, Prager U video

Can the Government Run the Economy? Prager U video

But Who Gets the Profit? Dinesh D'Souza Youtube Video

What Creates Wealth? Prager U video


Why Capitalism Works. Prager U video


Who Is Karl Marx? Prager U video

Lower Taxes, Higher Revenue. Prager U video

A highly revered article on the miracle and power of free market economics
I, Pencil (written form)  (movie form)

Henry Hazlitt's Economics in One Lesson


Broken Window Fallacy, Learn Liberty video

Just for fun...

The Economics of Halloween Candy

The Worst Candy: Halloween Economics

The Guide to Trading Halloween Candy (warming some cheesy language)


Keep track of all your research and extra reading. Credit hours can accumulate and Club points will be awarded for those who complete extra reading and research!

EXTRA CREDIT QUESTIONS (Place in notebook. These can help offset a sick day during debate rounds!):

What controls how we elect our federal positions?

What is the purpose of the Electoral College (why was it created)?

Read and Answer Student News Daily questions from their Media Bias articles base examples of media bias.

5 to 10 points per article, depending upon depth and number answered (do not choose a question with an answer on key other than "answers vary").


Watch and respond to a video. 5 point Response should include short summary of what it says, what does it mean, and personal opinion about concept.

Possible video choices:  "I Pencil," "The Broken Window," "Who Is Karl Marx?," and the "Electoral College" 


bottom of page